Primary Sources


  • Situational and emotional influences on the acceptability of wolf management actions in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem- Study published in Wildlife Society Bulletin about how Americans react to  wolf management actions based on where they were situated demographically and their emotional attachment. There were two surveys given, one to residents who lived close to the wolves and one to visitors of Grand Teton National Park, which connects to Yellowstone. It was found that the closer one lived to Grand Teton, the more against one is for their existence in the park.

  • Government testimony, hearing transcripts-Jon Doggett, the senior director of Natural Resources American Farm Bureau Federation, presents a hearing transcript about about reinstating wolves into Yellowstone National Park and Idaho. The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service published a proposed rule in the Federal Register in 1994 to implement the Records of Decision and introduce gray wolves. The introduction violated the Endangered Species Act by introducing a species into an area outside its historic range.  There are ten main points about how the introduction violates human rights to protect themselves and their livestock, and violations of the Endangered Species Act provisions. Examples of the points are: II. the introduction exceeds the authority granted under section 10 of the Endangered Species Act. IX: the proposals do not provide for compensation for livestock and property losses caused by the introduced wolves. There were conflicting views if the wolves should be introduced or not, and if they are being introduced legally.

  • “Yellowstone Wolves and Diversity”- The New York Times newspaper editorial. The wolves have allowed other species to develop new niches and they have effected population numbers and the landscape of Yellowstone National Park. Several environmentalist groups are pursuing a law suit to remove the wolves because of their destruction on certain specie numbers, especially elk.|A150248278&v=2.1&it=r&sid=summon&userGroup=msu_main&authCount=1

  • Yellowstone Wolf Project Biennial Report of 1995 and 1996- Explains how wolf restoration came about, the program objectives, summary of the results, and how each pack (8 total) was doing after their introduction. They also talk about public involvement from legal issues to volunteer and education opportunities.

  • The first three sources relate back to my thesis by providing the conflicting standpoints that Americans have and what they feel should be done with the Yellowstone wolves. The last source relates back by providing scientific results and evidence about how well the wolves fit into the park and how they are impacting it, both positively and negatively.